Hong Kong Annotated Bibliography
Boaz, Judd, and Mark Tjhung. “Reclaiming Hong Kong.” Time Out Hong Kong. 20 May 2016.
This article opens by painting the picture of Hong Kong before the practice of reclamation changed the waterfront. This is drastically contrasted with the story of Hong Kong now; a city with a quarter of all its development on reclaimed land that boasts itself as a world city though has destroyed many natural environments to attain this status. The process of reclamation is then explained with archival photographs used to illustrate these processes. In 1997, an Ordinance was passed that sought to preserve the Victoria Harbour from continued reclamation, though it has not had much impact, as it could not stop projects already underway and is subject to considerations of great economic advantage. Environmental concerns are outlined, and the article suggests that the public is now more concerned with environmental impacts, compared with previous concerns over cultural and heritage impacts from reclamation. The government seeks to strike a balance between accommodating a growing population, economic strategy, and environmental sustainability.
Keywords: Reclamation, Environmental Degradation, Economics, Water
Genre: non-fiction/ news article
City Gallery. Government of Hong Kong. 2012-present. http://www.citygallery.gov.hk/en/about-us/index.html.
The planning and infrastructure gallery in Hong Kong grows out of the original Hong Kong Planning and Infrastructure Exhibition Gallery that opened in 2002. Ten years later, the City Gallery opened as a relocated and expanded version of the previous gallery. The gallery contains various displays of plans for Hong Kong, either proposed or completed, and plans from other cities that Hong Kong seeks to draw ideas from. In January-February of 2018, the gallery is featuring a display of Nice, France, as that city has implemented a ‘smart-grid’ that promotes sustainable development while incorporating technological advances—a goal Hong Kong wants to emulate.
Keywords: Planning & Design, Sustainability, Public Involvement
Genre: art gallery (incorporates visual & mixed-media projects)
Cultural Hong Kong. City Gallery, by West Kowloon Cultural District. 20 june 2017- 30 nov 2017. https://www.westkowloon.hk/en/whats-on/past-events/cultural-hong-kong-an-exhibition-about-west-kowloon-cultural-district/start-date/27-01-2017/end-date/27-01-2018.
Presented at the City Gallery, this display shows the design plans underway for West Kowloon, in particular the upcoming Xiqu Centre, the M+ museum, the Lyric Theatre Complex, and the Hong Kong Palace Museum. These conceptual models are displayed on information panels, touch-screen devices, computer-rendered videos, and in a virtual reality tour. An interactive model of the future of the district also shows an underground road, so that above ground will remain for pedestrians and cyclists while vehicles will be relegated below. This display also shows the Nursery Park, currently located in West Kowloon, that is home to many varieties of trees the district will be transplanting once certain areas are otherwise fully constructed.
Keywords: Planning & Design, Public Involvement, West Kowloon, Sustainability
“Design Trust Research Fellowship.” M+, West Kowloon, Hong Kong. Established 2015-ongoing. https://www.westkowloon.hk/en/whats-on/past-events/m-design-trust-resear....
This fellowship, hosted by M+ in West Kowloon, supports one 3-6 months research project each year. The research project must focus on investigating architectural or design issues or aspects impacting the greater Pearl River Delta (PRD) region (an area that includes Hong Kong and adjacent cities on mainland China). The research project can be targeted to specific architectural decisions or be an interdisciplinary approach that considers also cultural or historical elements. The call for proposals does not explicitly mention conducting research with an eye toward environmental concerns, but that does not mean it is not an applicable area of study.
Keywords: Architecture, West Kowloon, Culture
Genre: research fellowship (will produce at least one publishable paper and one public lecture)
Dung, Kai-Cheung. Atlas: The Archaeology of an Imaginary City. Weatherhead Books on Asia by Columbia University Press, 2012.
This book combines fiction, non-fiction, and poetry into an archaeological exploration of the fictitious city Victoria, which acts as a stand-in for Hong Kong. A type of speculative fiction, this book questions where Hong Kong will go and how the city will progress after 1997, the official ‘handover’ of Hong Kong from Britain to mainland China. Engaging with other writers of place, such as Borges and Calvino, Dung captures the ephemerality and limitations of mapping and map-reading. Maps become versions of history, mutable as any other history, and their supposed superiority to personal anecdotes is called into question at the same time that maps are credited with realising place.
Keywords: Culture, Architecture, Re/development, Mapping
Genre: speculative fiction/novel
Frampton, Adam, Jonathan D Solomon, and Clara Wong. Cities Without Ground: A Hong Kong Guidebook. ORO Editions, 2012. http://citieswithoutground.com/.
This book contains maps of Hong Kong’s buildings and interconnecting terminals and walkways. While other cities have the option of sprawling outwards as their populations grow (such as Vancouver, which has the city-proper and an expanded metropolitan area where Vancouver has developed into neighbouring cities or towns) Hong Kong has grown upwards because of the lack of developable land. As such, Hong Kong does not have the same configuration as other large cities, with certain communities or areas clearly demarcated on maps that people can point to and identify as ‘problem’ areas. Instead of the usual indications, like rundown buildings and increased crime, that are relegated to a specific ground-space, Hong Kong operates with various socio-economic divisions occurring on various levels of elevation. The indications of class are seen more through air quality than crime or dilapidation, and other boundaries of class can be ascertained through scents and sounds of surrounding activities. This book strips these buildings to their floor plans and plots people in the corridors and rooms to demonstrate what types of activities occur where (and these types of activities then illuminate the social relations between people in proximity to each other).
Keywords: Planning & Design, Architecture, Environmental Degradation, Mapping
Genre: Non-fiction/ Maps
Heifetz, Justin. “Hong Kong’s Government is Spending Billions Taking Land from the Sea.” Motherboard, 10 November 2017.
This article questions why Hong Kong would embark on reclamation projects (expensive and environmentally detrimental) instead of using “readily available” land. It explains the population density and current housing situation while touching on social issues (colonisation) that helped shape the current problems. The article answers its question by reasoning that Hong Kong’s government finds reclamation an easier path than dealing with these systemic social issues, which have resulted in the rise of crime syndicates who control much of the un- or under-developed land. Quoting Eddie Chu, the article concludes that there is no forum for public voice regarding land development, and that this causes a disconnect between public will and government practice.
Keywords: Reclamation, Environmental Degradation, Economics, Colonialism/Post-colonialism
Genre: non-fiction/ news article
Hong Kong Cultural Centre, Hong Kong, Leisure and Cultural Services Department, 1989-ongoing. http://www.hkculturalcentre.gov.hk/en/hkcc/index.html.
The Hong Kong Cultural Centre (HKCC) is a venue and organisation run by the government of Hong Kong to promote and support the arts in Hong Kong. The HKCC partners with other venues and groups to promote the performing arts, such as orchestras, plays, ballets, and other performances for the stage (their partners are: Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra, Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra, The Hong Kong Ballet, and Zuni Icosahedron). The HKCC also homes an exhibition gallery that features art presented by other organisations, such as Cheung Ching Lutheran Centre for the Disabled, Portrait Photographic Association of Hong Kong, and The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, to name a few. These exhibits can occur simultaneously and typically run for one full-month at a time.
Keywords: Culture, Public Involvement, Multiplicity
Genre: gallery/ exhibition
Lorenz, Esther. “Wunerkammer—space of the unclassified.” Kowloon Cultural District: An Investigation into Spatial Capabilities in Hong Kong, edited by Esther Lorenz and Li Shiqiao, MCCM Creations, 2014, pp. 16-30.
Kowloon Cultural District combines architectural theories and designs with spatial and archival theorizations to reconsider how the structure of Hong Kong can better encompass the cultural spirit of the place. Esther Lorenz provides the introductory essay for the first part of the book, Cabinet of Curiosities. This section contains images, detailed writeups, and charts that describe the display Cabinets of Curiosity that the editors of the book organized for Hong Kong’s biennale celebration. This display pulled together a variety of culturally specific and integral aspects of life in Hong Kong and recontextualised them as ‘curiosities,’ that is, as things worthy of consideration and inspiring of wonder. Lorenz’s essay discusses this project in its original form as tangible objects and as displayed as images in the pages of the book. She argues that: “the format of the book, while lacking the immediacy of a physical object, is more than a descriptive support to it’s physical counter-part…it is disseminated, persistent, and accessible” (27). So, while the first part of the book does act as another showcase for the original objects, it again recontextualises the materials through the order in which they appear and organisation of the individual pages. These objects, presented and preserved, elicit curiosity simply because of their inclusion in a project on curiosities, and how each object contributes to the consideration of the next presented. The point of this endeavour, as Lorenz says, is to “revisit meanings and judgements” associated with certain objects and to promote “the generation of new meaning” that can contribute to the future architectural and spatial designs in Hong Kong (19-20).
Keywords: Planning & Design, Sustainability, West Kowloon, Architecture, Culture
Li, Shiqiao. “Archiving Space.” Kowloon Cultural District: An Investigation into Spatial Capabilities in Hong Kong, edited by Esther Lorenz and Li Shiqiao, MCCM Creations, 2014, pp. 156-64.
This essay prefaces the second part of Kowloon Cultural District. For an overview of the first section “Cabinet of Curiosities,” see the annotations for Esther Lorenz’s essay “Wunerkammer—space of the unclassified.” Li’s essay confronts questions of archiving space—a project he describes as a “creative act…both in the sense of preserving heritage and in the sense of projecting its future capabilities” (163). This stretches Western conceptions of archives as spaces to store history and allows for ideas of future designs to be housed together. Defining archives in these terms creates a space where a multiplicity of futures can coexist in a semi-realised form, and their interactions with each other can play out before concrete structures are built. This allows architects and cultural planners to work together to envision what they want the future Hong Kong to look like and to modify plans alongside the implementation of them.
The section that follows Li’s essay contains building plans from several architectural students. Each plan has a written proposal that explains the design elements and considerations for preserving and promoting Hong Kong’s culture in the structure of the buildings as well as a description of the future uses of the building. The plans are blue-print style images and computer renderings of the finished buildings and various views of the different floors (these buildings are all skyscrapers because Hong Kong needs verticality to support its dense population).
Keywords: Planning & Design, Sustainability, West Kowloon, Architecture, Landscape/Skyline, Students
Ng Ka, Chun. M+ Rover 2018. M+, West Kowloon, Hong Kong. 2018. https://www.westkowloon.hk/en/whats-on/current-forthcoming/m-rover-2018/chapter/participating-artist-1807.
The M+ Rover is travelling artist residency that visits schools in Hong Kong to encourage art installations created by the students with the guidance of a visiting artist. Created in 2016, the M+ Rover takes its external design inspiration from space ships and is a large metal-clad trailer. The inside, however, is made of repurposed pallets and soft, yellow lights to make an atmosphere of comfort and intimacy. This juxtaposition of styles is meant to build a sense of home and community between the students and the artist, while encouraging the students to let their imaginations expand as large as space. Ng Ka Chun is the artist for 2018, and his previous projects include “Social Furniture: Public Waste Recycling Project” from 2011, that aimed at instilling a social-environmental consciousness in students. His project with M+ Rover revolves around the idea of ‘village building’ and he asks the students to reimagine the roles of communal facilities. His work emphasises the benefits of accidents, and he seeks to show the students how their perceived mistakes can lead to new ideas that add to the final project.
Keywords: Sustainability, Students, West Kowloon, Culture
Genre: Visual art/ art installation
NG, Sui-cheong, Liane CHEUNG Tian-nan, and TSANG Suet-ming. SkyCamp. EXP+. 2017. https://www.westkowloon.hk/en/whats-on/current-forthcoming/hong-kong-young-architects-designers-competition-2017/event-type/public-and-learning-programmes.
West Kowloon launched the Hong Kong Young Architects & Designers Competition last year to seek proposals from emerging architects for a temporary pavilion in Nursery Park. A runner-up design, SkyCamp is of particular interest because of its acknowledgement of the site of the proposed pavilion on reclaimed land and interaction with other environmental factors. This pavilion features hammock-style cloths to use as seating areas where people can rest with their feet off the ground. The positioning of this pavilion means that the air currents from the harbour hit the swing-seats and sway them, creating an ethereal space where technological and architectural prowess meets environment and human experience.
Keywords: Public Involvement, Reclamation, West Kowloon, Environmental Rehabilitation
Genre: pavilion design
“Nursery Park Tree Tour.” West Kowloon Cultural District, West Kowloon, Hong Kong. 11 February 2018, and at least once a month, see website for schedule: https://www.westkowloon.hk/en/whats-on/current-forthcoming/nursery-park-tree-tour-and-workshop-february-2018/event-type/family.
Run by volunteers, this tour of Nursery Park shows the public what types of trees West Kowloon in growing to transplant for other areas of the district, once those areas are fully developed. Experts lead guided tours, explaining the traits of various trees (ie: the white underbelly of leaves on waterfront trees that prevents the tree from receiving too much sunlight from the reflection off the ocean). The nursery has made an effort to grow trees native to Hong Kong to promote the natural ecology and revitalise species that have been harmed from previous development. The goal of these monthly tours is to encourage public consideration for the natural environment through increased knowledge and awareness of the trees.
Keywords: Public Involvement, Environmental Rehabilitation, West Kowloon
Genre: guided tour
M+ Screenings: City Limits. West Kowloon, Hong Kong. 4-6 August 2017. https://www.westkowloon.hk/en/whats-on/past-events/m-screenings-city-limits/start-date/27-01-2017/end-date/27-01-2018.
This presentation by M+ is an amalgamation of various films depicting Asian cities. Beginning with the PRD region, the films show what life is like in the most densely populated region in the world. From these depictions, the films spiral outwards to other Asian cities, each video focusing on how urban development contributes to or acts as a catalyst for political, economic, social, creative, and/or environmental changes. Xu Tan, Jiang Zhi, Chen Shaoxiong, Cao Fei, and Zhou Tao each present a film on the first day that in some way speaks to the PRD region. Ou Ning, Cao Fei, and the U-thèque film collective collaborated on San Yuan Li in 2003, and that film was also shown. Fictionalised films by Gao Yuan (Lunar Dial, 2016) and Jia Zhangke (Still Life, 2006) were presented, as were documentaries by Wang Jianwei (Living Elsewhere, 1999) and Zhou Hao (The Chinese Mayor, 2015). Exploring South East Asia are films by Davy Chou (Diamond Island, 2016), Lee Wan (Made in Myanmar, 2014), and Tan Pin Pin (In Time to Come, 2017). The films that specifically focus on Hong Kong are by Tsai Ming-Liang (Walker, 2012) and Joao Vasco Paiva (Threshold, 2013).
Keywords: Industry, Landscape/Skyline, West Kowloon, Transnational Trade
Genre: videos (live-action, documentary, and animated shorts)
Su, Angela, director. Dark Fluid. Xu Shiqi, 2017.
This anthology, written primarily in Cantonese, assembles science fiction from writers and activists in Hong Kong. Constrained by publishing costs, the project director, Angela Su, decided to print the stories in their original language with English synopses rather than full translations. The goal of this project is to bring awareness to the myriad future paths available for Hong Kong, and to provide warnings of the detrimental environmental and societal impacts certain paths contain. The contributors to this anthology have diverse careers and include: Cally Yu (a journalist and fiction writer), Heaman Yip (filmmaker), Tse Pakchai (social activist, photographer, and historian), Mr. Pizza (fiction writer), Mary Lee (writer), Charles Lai (artist), and Audio Lai (experimental sound artist). This anthology crosses disciplines to provide numerous future ideas of Hong Kong, and in doing so stresses the importance of variety in social interactions and spaces.
Keywords: Culture, Environmental Degradation, Languages
Genre: Fiction, speculative
Wainwright, Oliver. “Cities Without Ground: A Guidebook to Hong Kong’s Elevated Walkways.” The Guardian, 22 February 2013. https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/architecture-design-blog/2013/feb/22/cities-without-ground-hong-kong-walkways.
This article provides a review for the book Cities Without Ground: A Hong Kong Guidebook, written by Adam Frampton, Jonathan D Solomon, and Clara Wong. This review muses on the ability of people to navigate an entire day through Hong Kong without ever touching the ground via the interconnected tunnels and elevated walkways. It includes a brief explanation of the historical beginnings of this city-building that references the hotel built by the HongKong Land Company in the 1960s that connected the hotel to the second-storey of a mall. The review critiques the book’s tendency to “fetishize the visual richness of exploded diagrams” at the expense of clarifying the images, but concludes that, overall, the book demonstrates how the architecture has created informal social spaces.
Keywords: Architecture, Planning & Design, Mapping
Genre: Book Review
van Schaik, Leon. “Spatial Intelligence.” Kowloon Cultural District: An Investigation into Spatial Capabilities in Hong Kong, edited by Esther Lorenz and Li Shiqiao, MCCM Creations, 2014, pp. 248-54.
Leon van Shaik’s essay precedes the third and last section in Kowloon Cultural District and seeks to tie together the first two sections under the idea of “Retrieval.” He explains his concept of ‘spatial intelligence’ as “the means by which we negotiate our little worlds,” or, in other words, the patterns we have internalised that inform individual perspectives (248). He asserts that by considering the ‘Curiosities’ in part one of the book as discrete objects outside of their usual setting, people can start to see how their spatial intelligence functions in determining their perceptions and that in understanding what impacts human understanding of spatial relationships, designers can better assess the proposed future projects gathered in the second section. Van Shaik then further discusses that how curiosities are classified and organised will impact how they are retrieved, and that this governing methodology will impact how the collection is understood (253). He urges careful consideration of this system of organisation, though allows for it to be changed as gaps in the knowledge or understanding are filled or other elements added to the collection. Following van Shaik’s essay are other essays regarding the retrieval of history and culture in Hong Kong and the negotiations between rebuilding, restoration, renovation, and recreation of existing spaces.
Key words: Planning & Design, Sustainability, Public Involvement, West Kowloon, Culture
Xi, Xi. “Marvels of a Floating City.” Marvels of a Floating City. Translated by Eva Hung. Renditions Paperbacks for Research Centre for Translation, CUHK, 1999.
This short story explains the existence of the floating city as a metaphor for social conceptions of Hong Kong during the hand-over of the city from Britain to mainland China. The explanations of the floating city’s happenings are accompanied by Rene Magritte’s surrealist paintings, which are presented as realist depictions of aspects of the city. For example, Magritte’s Natural Graces precedes the section describing the “bird-grass” and seems to be a literal painting of the unusual type of grass that grows on the floating city, and his Not to be Reproduced shows how all mirrors within the floating city can only show the backside of an object or person (22-23, 18-19). Magritte himself is referenced within the story, as the schoolchildren of the floating city are taken to see an exhibit of his work. This recontextualization of surrealist works as realist paintings demonstrates Xi’s perception of the surreal feeling of floating in a liminal space experienced by the citizens of Hong Kong during the late 1990s/early 2000s.
Keywords: Culture, Liminality, Multiplicity, Colonialism/Post-colonialism
Genre: Fiction, speculative
Xi, Xi. “The Story of Fertile Town.” Marvels of a Floating City. Translated by Eva Hung. Renditions Paperbacks for Research Centre for Translation, CUHK, 1999.
Told by an unreliable narrator, Everlasting Bloom, remembering events from her childhood, this story recounts how a town earned the name “Fertile” after a mud-plat outside the Everlasting Bloom’s uncles’ house sprouted giant flowers and vegetables. The mud-plat had transformed into the most fertile soil in the world, and an entire industry sprang up around it. Similar to Xi’s other story in this collection, “The Story of Fertile Town” offers commentary on the social anxieties experienced by Hong Kong residents during the hand-over from Britain to mainland China. This story offers pointed environmental and economic criticism, as the soil is exploited for profit, which results in disastrous consequences (both environmentally and economically). This piece calls for consideration of the natural environment of Hong Kong and questions the overzealous pursuit of profits that compromises environmental stability and well-being (ie: reclamation). It also warns of the catastrophic fallout associated with this disregard for the environment.
Keywords: Reclamation, Environmental Degradation, Transnational Trade, Colonialism/Post-colonialism
Genre: Fiction, speculative
Yao, Pauline J., and Shirley Surya, organizers. REORIENT: Conversations on South and Southeast Asia. M+ by West Kowloon, Hong Kong, 30 Nov 2017- 2 Dec 2017.
This three-day event featured panels, short presentations, and conversations between practitioners, researchers, and thinkers from a variety of disciplines in a public forum. The goal of this event is to highlight the important work done by South Asian individuals and groups, and how this work is helping to establish South Asia as a global entity. Combining multiple disciplines (visual art, architecture, and film) with various approaches to policy change (public instigated vs institutionally mandated) allows the speakers to consider multiple facets of problems faced in their own fields and how the disparate disciplines can influence each other through coordinated methods. Key questions explored include how Hong Kong is situated in relation to the other South Asian cities and regions, and how curatorial practices have influenced the production of art or other types of designs.
Keywords: Planning & Design, Public Involvement, West Kowloon, Transnational Trade
Genre: interdisciplinary forum
Boundary of District Planning Offices, Planning Department, Hong Kong, http://www.pland.gov.hk/pland_en/about_us/organ/dpobrdy.jpg.
This map illustrates the specific jurisdictions of each planning office within the Planning Department. This is meant for planners and developers so that they can more easily determine which office to contact regarding their plans.
Consume Wisely to Conserve our Biological Resources, Council for Sustainable Development, Hong Kong, 2016.
This document is designed to communicate to the public what biological resources are and how individuals can help reduce human impact on the environment in Hong Kong. It contains bright illustrations and seems to cater toward children, visually, despite containing language and concepts aimed at adults. This document identifies biological resources as “self-reproducing” entities (ie: fish) and encourages the public to recognise that though these populations can sustain themselves, human depletion of these resources can overtake their sustainability, and emphasises the need for moderation in consumption of these resources. There is a disconnect between this document and economics, as individuals fishing for themselves do not impact fish populations as much as corporate or industrial fishing, but this document is meant for the general public and not corporations. This document provides examples of biological resources used in every-day activities (ie: palm oil in toothpaste) and stresses the importance of moderation in individual consumption of these products (it does not call for producers to find alternative resources or to produce less items that require these resources). The document does indicate steps the government has taken in limiting some corporations, such as banning bluefin tuna from restaurants in Hong Kong because of the fragility of this fish’s population. The goal of this document is to educate the public about sustainable choices, so that consumers can (over time) impact the market and encourage producers to supply sustainable options for food, clothing, and other items.
Environmental Impact Assessment Ordinance 499, Hong Kong, amended 2015.
This piece of legislation governs how environmental impacts are to be assessed in Hong Kong and the allowable levels of environmental impact for future land development projects., as well as the consequences and enforcement mechanisms in place for transgressors. This document also outlines how planners should go about requesting an environmental permit for their proposed projects. This legislation allows for public comments regarding environmental concerns on proposed projects within 14 days of an application being submitted for consideration and insists that after initial consideration the applicant-planner provide reports of the proposed plan in English and Cantonese to the general public via newspapers and/or postings at specific locations. The Director of the Environmental Impact Assessment must then take into account all public concerns and comments. This legislation states that no approved project can be pursued until an environmental permit has been issued (this permit is surrendered upon completion of the project). Procedures for appealing decisions about the issuing of environmental permits are laid out, as are the enforcement mechanisms (such as the ability of an authorised officer to enter a place suspected of contravening the Ordinance without notice or warrant). All enforcement is liable to be paid by the transgressors with a 10% interest rate charged. Offenses and accompanying penalties are listed. Exemptions to the application of this legislation are possible if the Chief Executive in Council exempts a project, which can be done by publishing an order in the Gazette (the official publication by the government); however, certain elements of a project may be exempted from certain stipulations in this ordinance, though if other elements of the exemption permit are contravened, then the holder of the exemption permit is subject to punishment equivalent to if he/she had contravened an environmental permit. Attached at the end of the ordinance are three schedules. The first schedule defines terms used in the other schedules. Schedules two and three outline which types of development projects need environmental permits.
Environmental Impact Assessment Ordinance: Guidance Note 499, Hong Kong, 2010.
This document is an accompaniment for the Environmental Impact Assessment Ordinance and is meant to clarify the requirements of Landscape and Visual Impact Assessments (LVIA), as mentioned in the Ordinance under “Technical Memorandum”. This document states that all LVIAs be conducted by outside companies and the reports to be based on best-case scenarios for how the landscape will be impacted by the proposed development (unless the project is in a particularly unstable section, in which the best- and worst-case scenarios are to be presented). Before LVIAs are conducted, applicants must have submitted a report justifying why the proposed project should be undertaken as suggested and showing the potential landscape disruptions projected by the planners. Technically, there is a Landscape Impact Assessment that considers environmental impacts and changes to the terrain (after completion of the project, not during constructions) and a Visual Impact Assessment that considers the visual/ aesthetic impact of the proposed project, though both are presented in table-form and with maps and other graphics/illustrations. This document further details the specifics associated with the Impact Assessments and what the mitigation measures should include.
Environment Bureau, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong, 2007-Present, http://www.enb.gov.hk/en/top.html.
This website is the official website for Hong Kong’s Environment Bureau. It contains links to related: press releases, job opportunities, boards & committees, events, finance reports, legislation, and a blog. This website is designed to show the public what steps the government is taking toward environmental sustainability and to help educate the public about what environmental sustainability means and how it is achieved. The various links on this website cater to a wide range of website users, with the informal blog and brief descriptions for people casually interested in the department and the legislation and committees for people wanting specific accounts of government actions.
Guiding Principles, Hong Kong, sustainability department, year ??
This one-page document outlines eight key factors of sustainable development that guide Hong Kong’s decisions regarding development plans. The key elements include: economy, health & hygiene, natural resources, society & social infrastructure, biodiversity, leisure & cultural vibrancy, environmental quality, and mobility. Each of these categories have a small paragraph describing what the headers mean broadly. The clarifying paragraphs are vague and riddled with abstract language that does not aid in understanding any specific steps or goals of these guiding principles. For example, “Biodiversity” is explained as: “To maintain the biodiversity of Hong Kong and to minimise any threat which consumption in Hong Kong may have on biodiversity elsewhere” which does not describe what ‘biodiversity’ means to the government of Hong Kong, what type of consumption can lead to ‘threats,’ or even what constitutes a ‘threat’ to biodiversity (1). The vagueness of these guiding principles is to allow flexibility in the application and interpretation of these principles during the drafting and enactment of planning and development. However, this document is meant to be read in conjunction with the Sustainability Parameters and Checklist Questions in the CASET, which provides more in-depth explanations for these guiding principles (annotated below).
Hong Kong 2030: Planning Vision and Strategy, Hong Kong, 2001-2007.
Hong Kong 2030: Planning Vision and Strategy (HK 2030) is the government of Hong Kong’s action plan for sustainable development that will ensure Hong Kong a place among the world’s global cities, much like Vancouver’s Greenest City 2020 plan. This plan grew out of the 1984 Territorial Development Strategy (TDS) that established how to integrate transportation infrastructure and other large land-use plans for Hong Kong; the original document was amended in 1986, 1988, and, with an extensive revision, 1998. Upon the final revision, it became clear that an entirely new study was needed to account for Hong Kong’s changes, both regarding internal land-use (development and population growth) and external, global relations (economics and environment), and that this new study would inform another revision of the TDS. The “Inception Report,” published in 2001 though now compiled with the complete HK 2030, documents this background to the creation of HK 2030, the methodology used in conducting the studies to determine Hong Kong’s needs, the vision Planners have for Hong Kong, the various stages of research and implementation of the final plan, and the need to balance economic needs with environmental impacts. Multiple consultations were held with the public, each of which generated a separate document and covering such topics as: density reduction, environmental and ecological considerations, and questions of industrial zoning. The final report was released a decade after England relinquished Hong Kong and stresses Hong Kong’s need to be a key economic player with mainland China and the globe. The final report begins with a quote from Andy Warhol: “They say that time changes things, but you actually have to change them yourself,” which speaks directly to Hong Kong’s practice of self-fulfilment and ambition to succeed, while also nodding to the influence of art and artists within a city (while Warhol’s quote may not have been about economic advancement, Warhol himself was extremely economically successful and heralded from New York, one of the cities Hong Kong takes as an exemplar). Each subsequent chapter (sixteen in total) begins with a quote, and these quotes range from artists to philosophers and proverbs from around the world (though many are Americans), further emphasising Hong Kong’s place as a global city that interacts with global ideas. This report documents the changing global attitudes toward success, notably the shift from economic power to sustainable development as a marker of a global city, and identifies ways Hong Kong can adopt sustainable development strategies to ensure global success. Reclamation is recommended to be prohibited in Victoria Harbour and strongly discouraged in other areas, except for projects which have already been approved and not yet finished, or if “the need arises” (171). Additionally, construction waste is to be used as reclamation fill. The final study is organised in four sections: the planning process, the planning vision & potential challenges, planning choices, and planning strategy. The first section recaps the “Inception Report,” reviews planning documents from Mainland China, and reviews other legislation in Hong Kong that would impact suggested development strategies. The second section stresses Hong Kong’s desire to be Asia’s World City, and points to more streamlined connections, infrastructure, and policies to Mainland China as important aspects for achieving this goal. Public health and population density is also closely linked to this goal, as the SARS outbreak in 2003 is cited as a wake-up call regarding the importance of public health in Hong Kong; Hong Kong cannot be a world city if it’s population is eradicated by a future disease, and so residential development should focus on providing better air flow in existing buildings. This section documents Hong Kong’s relationship with Mainland China on the macro-scale (how many billions of dollars and products are exchanged yearly) and on the micro-scale (how many residents of Hong Kong visit Mainland China and vice versa). Technology, art, and tourism are some of the various industries Hong Kong wants to encourage growth in as it solidifies its status as a World City. This document predicts a main challenge will be the combination of low birth rate and an ageing population as Hong Kong approaches the year 2030, because the high population will mean lots of people will be retiring or requiring other social services at the same time (and then dying) and will leave behind less young people to fill all the empty jobs. Hong Kong seeks to address this issue by encouraging people to take later retirements (the expected age has risen to 80-86 years, more than a decade longer than previously) and to encourage women to pursue jobs and education, as women still tend to remain in the home. The third section debates the line between development and non-development; how developing sustainably can prevent urban sprawl that negatively impacts the environment, and how the government can use sanctions to encourage certain types of development over others. These density issues are illustrated with coloured maps indicating potential city growth or new areas to develop into towns and charts that debate consolidating or decentralising populations in various areas. This section also defines “sustainable development” as the increased prosperity and quality of human life with the reduction of pollution, meeting a population’s needs without damaging the future population’s ability to meet their needs, and the reduction of Hong Kong’s ecological footprint and preservation of cultural and natural resources (111). Section four concludes that neither consolidation nor decentralisation are entirely compatible models for Hong Kong’s goals for sustainable development, and instead proposes a combined approach. This document recommends some new development be made for residential and mixed-use areas, but to not form completely new towns. Overall suggestions conclude that each site being considered for future development be considered individually, with no blanket policy regarding lowering or increasing population density, with the proviso that wind passage at the pedestrian level be of utmost consideration to limit the spread of communicable diseases. Essentially, this section says that all development be left to the whims of the market, in terms of how much and when housing is needed, but that planners should take into consideration sustainable development ideas and weigh the options regarding population density and emissions for each specific site being developed. There is an insistence on ‘rehabilitating’ older areas and buildings before completely redeveloping or building new infrastructure to minimise environmental impact from construction. Guidelines for providing a quality living environment, enhancing economic competitiveness, and strengthening links with Mainland China are listed with further breakdowns inside each category for how to obtain the desired results. Alternative future paths are considered as backup plans if the population or economic (or both) changes differ wildly from the projected changes. Additional mechanisms are provided for adjusting the plan to accommodate changes in global economics or local populations that maintain the key vision of the plan. This document ends with recommendations for other studies to be conducted and other development plans to be made regarding specific sites and districts that take into account the goals of this plan.
Hong Kong 2030+: Towards a Planning Vision and Strategy Transcending 2030, Hong Kong, 2015-2018, http://www.hk2030plus.hk/.
This study comes out of HK 2030, and builds on the planning ideas proposed there. The official report from this study has not yet been released, though it is planned to be published this year. This study focuses on how to create an “action-oriented” method for planning Hong Kong’s development that is flexible enough to accommodate changing global conditions (“About”). The website uses bright charts and links to direct people through the site and illustrate various statistics and findings. The website covers global trends that impact Hong Kong (climate change, the rise of the middle-class globally, better educated populations), to regional goals (such as strengthening connections with the Pearl River Delta Region to create a mega-city region), to Hong Kong specific statistics (percentage of reclaimed land used for residential housing, annual greenhouse gas emissions, and use of public transportation). This study acknowledges that Hong Kong is a compact city, in terms of population density, and provides suggestions for maintaining this model in a more sustainable and efficient way (unlike the earlier study which waffled between wanting to encourage this development and wanting to disperse the population). Public transit is seen as a key component to condensed living, and Hong Kong proposes constructing railways to surround key areas with other shuttle-type vehicles that dip into these compact locations. Additionally, walking and biking are encouraged, and the infrastructure to support these modes of transportation are to be consistently integrated. In terms of development, this study recommends prioritizing the rejuvenation of existing buildings and communities, rather than creating new development projects, to help the older areas become more sustainable and functional. This study recommends the diversification of Hong Kong’s economy through policy that encourages tech-based companies to operate in Hong Kong, as well as greater investment in universities. HK 2030+ identifies how many hectares of land will be needed in the coming years, how much of the required space will be provided by projects already in motion, and how to develop land best to acquire the remaining land required. Among the recommended courses of action are: redeveloping lands in disuse, rezoning sites to accommodate intensified density, identify important ecological sites to mark for protection, reclamation, investing in research for developing land on mountains or inside caves, building on filled-in landfill sites, and relocating appropriate jobsites/offices closer to residential buildings. The website includes detailed, colour-coded maps that illustrate where new development is taking place and where it is recommended, with bullet points to explain design and planning choices for each region.
Hong Kong: The Facts: Town Planning, Hong Kong, 2016.
This document contains the basic who-what-why of city and land development in Hong Kong. It outlines the various groups and their responsibilities, as well as relevant studies and government statutes regarding land use and development. This information contains the broad strokes of operations, and should be used as a way of orienting thinking and approaches to understanding development in Hong Kong. All information in the document is considered ‘common knowledge’ by the government of Hong Kong, and therefore this document does not need to be cited when using information it contains.
Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines, Hong Kong, last amended March 2017.
This planning document contains the official guidelines for all development plans in Hong Kong. It is available online at: http://www.pland.gov.hk/pland_en/tech_doc/hkpsg/sum/index.htm. Each chapter is available for download so that developers (or public) can find the relevant information efficiently. The primary function of this document is to aid in developers and planners while they design new constructions plans, and as such, it contains some technical advice for when developers should obtain certain forms. The introduction includes the history of the Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines (HKPSG) as well as its governing body, the Hong Kong Planning Department. The introduction stresses the importance of considering the HKPSG as a flexible guideline, meant to be adhered to when possible, but also considered in conjunction with other government documents, should the need arise. Chapter two deals with Residential Densities and land occupation. Population density being a primary concern in Hong Kong, this chapter identifies the maximum capacities for certain areas, as decided by infrastructure (for traffic and public transportation) and environmental concerns (geotechnical conditions that would be unsafe for dense developments or environmentally sensitive areas, such as wetlands). Though environmental concerns are noted, they are not explicitly explained in this document. Chapter two also addresses the Main Urban Areas of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, New Kowloon, and the District of Tsuen Wan, and the District of Kwai Tsing, as being particularly high density, and that all additional residential housing be done to best serve this density (ie: building near railways). Density is also impacted by the requirements for size of housing per person and the “plot ratio” (how much land a building takes up vs how tall it is), and these standards are determined by where the building is located. Tables are provided to aid in determining the required “plot ratio” for specific sites. Chapter three provides guidelines for community facilities with sections detailing each: educational, medical and health, police stations, magistracies, correctional, fire service, ambulance service, arts, community halls & social welfare, post offices, mortuaries, and funeral depots. The standards are summarised in tables beginning on page 38 of chapter three according to how many people and how much floor space is necessary for each facility. Chapter four details the use and implementation of future recreational spaces and the goal of “greening” the city. There is concern over the lack of wildlife/natural spaces within Hong Kong cities, and this document stresses the importance of incorporating vegetation into new development plans; although environmentally friendly techniques or procedures are not mentioned for the actual development process, the maintenance of pre-existing vegetation is considered important, with plans needing to be in place to avoid disrupting roots or contaminating soils. “Greening” is described as being beneficial only in human-terms (plants look nice and provide an aesthetic variance from skyscrapers). This chapter identifies recreation as an important aspect of human life, but stresses that the construction of new recreational spaces be limited to providing for activities that cannot be done elsewhere and also can serve the need for open-air space in a community. Chapter four includes a study that was done regarding the types of recreational activities people engage in and what activities are in demand, with the results being that most people would like easier access to watersports or open-air spaces (because of an aging population that likes leisurely walks). Chapter five details how to plan for industrial land uses, including worker densities, lot sizes, and supporting facilities such as parking lots. This chapter is important in dealing with the influx of industry since the “open-door” economic policy with China came into effect. Included in this chapter is the specifics for zoning various types of industrial buildings (ie: science centres vs university research facilities vs production factories). Charts and hand-drawn concept maps are provided at the end of the chapter to illustrate variations on allowable structures. Chapter six focuses on retail businesses, and along with demarcating the specific requirements for retail sites, it also contains studies on shopping habits of people in Hong Kong to inform developers of what business ventures are most likely to succeed. This retail study found that people from Hong Kong are more likely to shop in Hong Kong than to go to Mainland China, and that they tend to frequent fresh markets more than other types of household/grocery stores. Chapter seven discusses utility services, particularly which utility services need to be provided for which types of developments and what quantity these services should be provided in. Utilities included are: electricity, gas, telephone, radio telecommunications and broadcasting services, and water (supply and drainage). This chapter points planners to other government agencies depending on the type and scope of their development projects. Chapter eight details the internal transport facilities (otherwise known as transportation infrastructure). The policies in this chapter are meant to encourage better planning strategies that strive for efficient and environmentally safe methods of transportation, and therefore do not give strict details about how to implement transportation infrastructure, but rather provides reasoning for why certain elements should be considered over others. As such, this chapter insists that considerations in chapter nine (environment) are taken into higher consideration than elements found within chapter eight. The types of transportation listed in this chapter are: railways, roads, public transit, walking paths, cycling routes, and parking. Chapter nine is discussed below in a separate annotation because of its particular relevance to the larger project. Chapter ten discusses conservation efforts regarding natural landscapes and heritage sites. Sites designated as conservation areas are to be protected from further development, unless economic or social factors outweigh the benefits of protecting the site. Chapter eleven deals with urban design guidelines, which means the overall aesthetic layout of Hong Kong within which all other designs and plans operate. Guidelines provided are not rigid, as they are designed to accommodate the many facets of Hong Kong as an ‘Asia World City’ and to bolster the City’s image in any relevant way. This chapter asks planners to consider how their proposed designs interact with existing structures and natural features of Hong Kong to see the aesthetic and functional impact of the proposed design. It breaks considerations into three levels: macro (existing physical and natural landscape, existing skyscrapers), intermediate (impact on penetration of light and air in area, compatibility with heritage sites), and micro (pedestrian impact). Visual renderings are provided to illustrate appropriate urban design strategies, such as wide pedestrian walk ways with overhangs (often made using trees) to provide shade from the sun and protection during the rainy season, or the appropriate use of greenery to mask unsightly structures. Considerations of airflow and wind passageways are mentioned regarding almost every design feature. The twelfth and last chapter deals with miscellaneous topics, including: rock cavern development, gas stations, potentially hazardous installations, vehicle repair shops, ports and storage areas, and land use beneath flyovers and footbridges. These sites are not connected to each other, but do not fall under the purview of the earlier chapters. Tables and charts are provided to show when and how development for each should be considered or implemented.
Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines, “Chapter Nine: Environment.” Hong Kong, 2017.
While earlier chapters hinted that planning with environmental strategies in mind is important, chapter nine explicitly documents what factors are to be considered and how, and insists that this chapter be considered alongside other relevant planning chapters. This chapter begins with an informative table that outlines the type of industry, associated forms of pollution, and guidelines for how to avoid or minimize expected associated pollution. The two main goals of environmental considerations in planning are the avoidance of new environmental problems and to act on opportunities for environmental improvement in the case of redevelopment. A key focus is the proper treatment and disposal of waster products leaving proposed facilities. Flow charts and tables are provided for clarification of expectations. The methods for environmental consideration only go so far as to minimise immediate impact on humans (for example, under “air quality” the document does not discuss methods for reducing air pollutants, but states that high-emission air polluters be located outside urban areas on the west side “to take advantage of prevailing north-easterly winds” that simply disperse the pollution away from the population and into the atmosphere) (15, 2.3.2.b). The main types of pollution addressed in this chapter are air and noise pollution—the two most impactful types of pollution to people living in urban centres in Hong Kong. Charts, tables, and diagrams are provided to help visualise the allowable types of structures and distances between buildings that emit noise or air pollution in similar ways or ways that otherwise compound on each other. Reclamation is mentioned in a small section (5.2.10) and its adverse effects are credited to the act of dredging that usually accompanies reclamation projects. Section 5.2.12 mentions that reclamations projects impact water flow, and states that “computer modelling” must be used to ascertain how the water flow will be altered before the project commences.
Lam, Carrie. “Waterfront Development in Hong Kong.” Hong Kong, Victoria Harbour, n.d.
This document explains the historical and ongoing reclamation projects in Hong Kong’s Victoria Harbour. It begins by showing what reclamation projects have brought to Hong Kong (international financial centre, large-scale housing projects, industrial areas, sewage screening plants, etc). This is supplemented with aerial photographs from the 1900s, 1970s, and present-day that show the various areas that were reclaimed. Immediately following this display of progress are newspaper headlines from 2003 that show people’s dissatisfaction with reclamation as a means to solve land issues and a quotation given by the Chief Executive, Donald Tsang, in his 2008-09 address where he stresses the need to keep the harbour “beautiful” (6). The remainder of the document showcases the development plans for Victoria Harbour, and emphasises the consideration to turn this area into a multi- and public-use region. The end of the document questions whether Hong Kong needs a dedicated Harbourfront Authority and how to fund the multiple efforts of revitalisation.
Land Sale, Lands Department, Hong Kong, 2005-Present, http://www.landsd.gov.hk/en/landsale/records.htm.
This website provides links to all land sales within Hong Kong from 2011-2018, divided by year from April-April (fiscal years). The land sales are listed in charts that lists the date and type of sale, lot number for the site and specific site location, the user/ future use for the site, site area given in metres, and premium in millions of dollars. This allows planners, developers, and the public to easily see who bought what land and for how much money.
Schedules of Plans: Schedules of Statutory Plans, Planning Department, Hong Kong, http://www.pland.gov.hk/pland_en/info_serv/tp_plan/stat_plan/hkozp.html.
This website provides a chart that lists the various active zoning plans. The outline zoning plans for each location contains the land use zones, development parameters, and major transportation infrastructure in the area. While these specifics are not listed on this website, this source does show which areas are actively seeking development permissions (shown as status “Exh.”) and those who have already received permission for development (“S.A.”). Dates of approval or consideration are listed alongside the plan numbers so that planners or the public can then find relevant plans for specific areas.
Schedules of Plans: Schedule of Adopted Departmental Plans & Other Miscellaneous Plans: Hong Kong Island, Planning Department, Hong Kong, http://www.pland.gov.hk/pland_en/info_serv/tp_plan/adopted/hk.html.
These plans have been reviewed and are one step behind those plans in the Schedule of Draft Department Plans (annotated below). These plans are accompanied by this map: http://www.pland.gov.hk/pland_en/info_serv/tp_plan/index_pdf/adopt_hk.pdf. These plans have been suggested to the Planning Department and have been adopted, though not yet finalised. Some of the plans listed are to be incorporated into existing plans or are otherwise subject to existing plans for the same place and are indicated as such in the chart with “+”. Similar plans exist for other major urban centres in Hong Kong.
Schedules of Plans: Schedule of Draft Department Plans: Hong Kong Island, Planning Department, Hong Kong, http://www.pland.gov.hk/pland_en/info_serv/tp_plan/stat_plan/hkozp.html.
This website provides a chart documenting the specific plans in effect for Hong Kong Island. It should be cross-referenced with this map: http://www.pland.gov.hk/pland_en/info_serv/tp_plan/index_pdf/cir_hk.pdf. This map shows the specific areas and sites for each plan, with boundaries clearly demarcated and labelled according to the plan numbers. The chart provides the names of each plan along with the plan numbers so that plans can be easily found. The website can be navigated to find similar pages for each major urban centre in Hong Kong. While these projects have not yet begun, they are in the preparation stage, meaning they have been circulated to relevant parties and are awaiting commencement.
Statutory Planning Portal 2, Town Planning Board, Hong Kong, https://www1.ozp.tpb.gov.hk/gos/default.aspx?.
This website compiles active applications for planning and rezoning with an interactive map to show users active sites. It is prefaced by a disclaimer that says the Town Planning Board reserves the right to alter any of the information on this website without notice and that if a discrepancy between information provided on this website and official planning documents (Town Planning Ordinance) arises, the official documents are to be considered correct. This website is designed to aid planners in ascertaining how to apply for various permissions and amendments regarding development plans.
Sustainability Parametres and Checklist Questions in the CASET, sustainable development, Hong Kong, year ??
This document is meant to accompany the Guiding Principles (annotated above) and is used to aid planners in considering the sustainability of a project. It provides jot notes for each of the eight key principles that clarify what elements planners need to accommodate for each principle. For example, biodiversity includes: “area of managed marine habitat for conservation,” “area of managed terrestrial habitat for conservation,” “area of Hong Kong of high marine ecological value,” and “are of Hong Kong of high terrestrial ecological value.” Though these points themselves are not explained—ie: what constitutes ‘high ecological value’?—this document is designed for professionals in the field who likely know these specifications. The checklist at the end asks questions for the planners to consider, such as “will the proposal possibly affect the number of people residing in inadequate housing?” and while it does not give answers, implies that planners act in the best interests of the citizens of Hong Kong.
The SUSDEV 21 Study, Sustainability Department, Hong Kong, year ??
This document was compiled from the findings of The Study on Sustainable Development for the 21st Century in Hong Kong, which was commissioned in 1997. Due to Hong Kong’s rapid development and historical position as a colonial outpost, the government decided that Hong Kong needed a report on how certain actions impact the environment regarding both short- and long-term effects. This study was designed to aid in creating informed development guidelines that encourage sustainable practices, or, in other words, was designed to inject considerations of sustainable development from the outset of projects rather than as an after thought or addendum. This study is responsible for identifying and compiling the Guiding Principles as discussed above. This study looked to international examples and found that Hong Kong’s historic, economic, and cultural situation requires a different approach to sustainable development that relies on active participation from the government, communities, and corporate actors. The report provides potential negative impacts on the human population in Hong Kong if sustainable development is not pursued (including poor air and water quality). The report addresses the eight guiding principles by explaining the findings regarding each at the time of the investigation, though these principles are not immediately connected to sustainable development. For example, “economy” simply assesses that there is a large income gap between the wealthy and the poor in Hong Kong (9). Reclamation is only mentioned once, as being one of many threats to fisheries. This is interesting because it is a key development strategy in Hong Kong and has many environmental consequences and impacts on more than fish. The study recommended that greater accountability measures be incorporated to enforce sustainable development practices, the creation of a Sustainability Department within the government, and increasing public awareness of sustainable practices and measures.
Town Planning Ordinance, Hong Kong, updated dec 2017. First 1939.
This legislation details how planners are to prepare potential plans and how Hong Kong officials are to approve such plans, as well as which types of areas and which permissions must be granted for which types of developments. This document first defines the terms used within it, and then specifies how the Town Planning Board (TPB) is to be created and what powers are associated with that body (the establishment and overseeing of committees to study various potential impacts from proposed development plans and the final approval or rejection of all plans). This document grants the TPB the ability to draft plans for anywhere in Hong Kong that the City might want developed and the power to draft specific permissions for development areas not already covered by existing legislation. It provides an outline for what information is required when the TPB drafts lay-out plans or development permissions. All plans made by the board must be displayed for two months for public inspection during “reasonable hours” and the place of display must be conveyed to the public through weekly newspaper postings in two Cantonese and on English publication as well as in the Hong Kong Gazette (government’s publication) (section 5). This public exhibition of plans and incorporation of public feedback is important, especially considering the large scope of powers the TPB possesses, as section 6 details. Once the public feedback has been incorporated into the designs the amended drafts must also be made available for further public commentary. The Chief Executive in Council oversees and appoints the TPB and provides the final say on all plans prepared by the TPB. Upon approval of plans from the TPB, the Chief Executive then publishes the plans for further public inspection. If the Chief Executive rejects a draft plan by the TPB, then he must publish the rejection in the Gazette, and this rejection cannot be prejudiced against future draft plans for the same site (sections 10 & 11). The Chief Executive also retains the right to request further amendments to TPB plans at any point in the process. This legislation also declares that any other development plans that fall under the jurisdiction of other ordinances and meet those standards are considered as having met the requirements of this ordinance (ie: transportation infrastructure which is covered under the Roads Ordinance (Cap. 370) or the Railways Ordinance (Cap. 519)). This legislation includes instructions for how developers are to request amendments to permissions already granted to accommodate changes in the development plans or regarding other changes that may arise during or before construction. If a developer is unsatisfied with the results from a request for alteration to a granted permission, then the procedures for appealing decisions made are listed in this ordinance. All approved plans are granted permissions for three years, with the possibility of extending those permissions for one additional year, at which time, if not developed, the plans fizzle. No more than one draft plan at a time can be operational for any one site. If a person or corporation develops land without the approval of the Chief Executive, then that person or corporation is subject to $500000 in fines (for a first offense) and up to one-million dollars for subsequent offenses. The Director of Planning retains the right to enter development premises without notice or a warrant to ascertain if the development is adhering to the specifications of the permissions granted for that project.
Town Planning (Amendment) Ordinance, Hong Kong, 2004.
This legislation documents all the changes to the Town Planning Ordinance made in 2004. The changes have already been included in the original Ordinance and this document merely lists where the changes occur, what the original sections said, and what the changes now say. This is to be used by planners and developers to better locate original specifications and what the new requirements are for obtaining development permissions or for appealing decisions (either rejections or for amendments to approved permissions).
Keywords: Re/development, Water, Multiplicity, Industry, Transnational Trade, Students, Sustainability, Liminality, Languages, Economics, Planning & Design, Culture, Environmental Degradation, Landscape/Skyline, Colonialism/Post-colonialism, Mapping, Architecture, Reclamation, Public Involvement, West Kowloon, Environmental Rehabilitation